PSY 201 Discussion Environmental Influences on The Brain Development

Want create site? With you can do it easy.

PSY 201 Discussion Environmental Influences on The Brain Development

Development of the brain is influenced by nature and nurture. Give two examples of how “nurture” (experience, environmental influences) can impact brain development in either a positive or adverse way. Support your statements with findings from a scholarly research article (s). Cite your reference(s).

DQ2 Critical Periods

What is meant by the term, “critical period” as it refers to development? Discuss how the concept of critical periods applies to various aspects of physical, brain, and perceptual development. In terms of brain development, how have research findings on neuroplasticity changed our views about the rigidity imposed by critical periods? Support your response with findings from scholarly research. Cite your reference(s).

PSY 201 Discussion Environmental Influences on The Brain Development

PSY 201 Discussion Environmental Influences on The Brain Development

The human brain develops over an extended period; its maturation continues through adolescence and young adulthood [1,2,3]. Studying trajectories of brain development in representative samples of the general population is important in order to understand exposures and stressors in the child’s and adult’s physical and social environment that shape human brain development [2,3,4]. Early environments may be particularly important in their impact on mental health, learning and behavior in human societies [2,3]. In this context, it is important – for both theoretical and practical reasons – to measure trajectories of brain development in large population-based epidemiological studies [2,5].

Researchers with expertise in environmental epidemiology, neuropsychology, psychiatry and developmental cognitive neuroscience contributed to a 2-day scientific debate convened in Barcelona during October 2014. The debate focused on neuroimaging and neuropsychological approaches for the assessment of brain and cognition in typically developing children and adolescents and the challenges of assessing environmental exposure for studies carried out in the general population. The ultimate goal was to generate a consensus about the importance of population-based studies that integrate information across different levels: molecular (e.g., biochemical, genetic), systems (e.g., structural and functional neuroimaging and cognitive assessments) and populations (e.g., air pollution) [2]. The debate covered 3 strategic areas: (a) environmental pollution and population science, (b) measures of brain development and (c) future directions and conclusions.

Environmental Pollution and Population Science
There are about 214 chemicals that have been documented in clinical and epidemiological studies as having neurotoxic properties, mainly in adults. Only 12 of these have been properly examined with regards to their effects on human brain development; this is because most of the other chemicals have not been explored specifically in pregnant women and children, and/or we have only limited data on exposures to these chemicals at the population level. The evidence available on these 12 substances suggests that adverse impacts on brain development can happen at much lower exposures than those that affect the mature brain [3]. Nonetheless, the present documentation [3] almost certainly underestimates the real number of chemicals affecting neurodevelopment. In consequence, there is a need to develop screening methods that are validated against epidemiologic data in their prediction of neurotoxicity. It has been hypothesized that many untested neurotoxic chemicals may be responsible for a ‘silent pandemic’, in which early life exposures are causing multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, costing billions of dollars annually to our societies [3].

Longitudinal measures of brain development – whether neuropsychological or neuroimaging – provide insights into typical trajectories against which one can evaluate the possible impact of adverse physical or social environments. Multimodal MRI is non-invasive and provides detailed information about brain structure and function [2]. For example, a recent MRI study has identified an association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and the development of brain white matter, cognition and behavior [9]. Similarly, computerized neuropsychological tests performed repeatedly over time have shown association with air pollution in school age children [6]. Moreover, the recent inclusion of computerized tests has reduced inter-observer variability during assessment, and such neuropsychological functions are recorded automatically preventing errors in the act of data collection [6].

Did you find apk for android? You can find new and apps.

Quick Assignments Help
Order NOW For A 10% Discount!
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Customer Support 24/7

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Services

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission and Business Papers

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Editing

Editing and Proofreading

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Coursework

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.