Describe the Criteria to be Met Before Screening for Disease
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) collects and disseminates information about outbreaks
of disease. H1N1, SARS, and West Nile virus are just a few of the disease
outbreaks that the CDC has reported. You have been called upon to lead one of
the investigations. Select a disease outbreak for which you will lead an
In a report of 750-1000-words, present the following information:
Identify and describe the necessary steps to be taken for an investigation of the
For each of the three prevention levels, provide at least two examples of prevention for this disease.
Describe the criteria to be met before screening for this disease.
Describe how the effectiveness of the screening program will be evaluated.
You are required to use a minimum of three scholarly resources.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
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the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning
the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations
for successful completion of the assignment.
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The observation that a particular cancer has more favorable survival if diagnosed at an early stage is important but only one element in the decision matrix used to determine whether to offer cancer screening to an asymptomatic population.1–3 In general, the following criteria should be met:4
1.The disease should be an important health problem, as measured by morbidity, mortality, and other measures of disease burden.
2.The disease should have a detectable preclinical phase.
3.Treatment of disease detected before the onset of clinical symptoms should offer benefits compared with treatment after the onset of symptoms.
4.The screening test should meet acceptable levels of accuracy and cost.
5.The screening test and follow-up requirements should be acceptable to individuals at risk and to their healthcare providers.
These criteria are important considerations prior to any decision to offer screening to a healthy population. Although each consideration is important, there are no individual thresholds for these criteria to guide decision making; thus, the decision matrix implies collective consideration.5, 6 For example, a disease may not be an important cause of mortality but may account for significant morbidity. A high false-positive rate may be acceptable when screening for cancers at some organ sites but not at others due to the costs (financial or harms to individuals) associated with diagnostic testing after an abnormal screening examination. A screening test may not meet the criteria very well, but the disease may be of great concern to the population at risk and the test will therefore be acceptable despite limitations. Values, in addition to scientific evidence, play a role in policy decisions about screening.
Diseases that are fatal and/or the cause of significant morbidity are potentially suitable for screening. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that approximately 1.3 million individuals are diagnosed with invasive cancer each year,7 and that more than an additional million Americans will be diagnosed with basal and squamous cell cancers of the skin and in situ cervix, breast, or melanoma lesions. The ACS also estimates that approximately one-half million individuals die yearly from cancer as the underlying cause of disease (nearly 1 in 4 deaths). Death from cancer is the second leading cause of death among men and women in the United States.7 Among men, the lifetime risk of developing cancer is 43.8%, and the lifetime risk of dying from cancer is 23.9%; among women, the lifetime risk of developing cancer is 38.4%, and the lifetime risk of dying from cancer is 20.4%.8 Cancer is also a leading cause of premature mortality, expressed as average (ie, expected) longevity at a given age at the time of death from cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that cancer accounted for 8.3 million person-years lost in 1999 due to premature mortality, which means it now accounts for the greatest number of person-years of life lost among all causes of death.8 Average years of life lost due to cancer are higher (15 years) than for heart disease (11 years).